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Application of DNA barcode technology in the identification of Chinese medicinal materials

Date:2021/01/06 13:53:15
DNA barcode technology is an emerging molecular identification method, which can make up for the shortcomings of traditional chemical and morphological methods to identify Chinese medicinal materials. By consulting the literature, based on the analysis of the principles and development of DNA barcode technology, discuss some of the current popular DNA barcode candidate sequences ITS, ITS2, psbA-trnh, rbcL, matK, focusing on the analysis of their use in plant and animal Chinese medicine The application in material identification provides new ideas for the identification of Chinese medicinal materials.
The number of counterfeit and substitutes of Chinese medicinal materials on the market is increasing. Irregular planting, profit-making by merchants, adulteration and counterfeiting have seriously endangered the lives of patients and the credibility of medical personnel. Due to the complexity of the clinical application of Chinese herbal medicines, the confusion and unqualified quality of Chinese herbal medicines can easily lead to serious adverse reactions in patients. Taking Baixianpi as an example, many patients in the clinic have taken decoction pieces processed from fake Chinese medicinal materials similar to the plant Baixian, resulting in drug-induced liver injury [1]. It can be seen that improper use of Chinese medicinal materials can damage the body's health and even cause poisoning reactions. However, many medicinal materials are similar in shape to fake products, and it is difficult to pass traditional physical and chemical identification methods. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a more accurate, fast and reliable identification system and quality evaluation system for traditional Chinese medicine.
1 Molecular Marking Technology
Molecular markers are genetic markers based on nucleotide sequence variation, which exhibit genetic polymorphisms at the DNA level [2]. Compared with traditional identification techniques, DNA molecular genetic marker technology has the characteristics of rapidness, trace amount, and strong specificity. It has been widely concerned by researchers at home and abroad in the identification of Chinese medicinal materials [3-4]. At present, some DNA molecular labeling methods are gradually applied to the identification of Chinese patent medicines, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms, restriction fragment length polymorphisms, random amplified polymorphic DNA markers, mutation allele specificity Amplification, simple repetitive sequences, SSR molecular markers, etc., each have a corresponding scope of application. Among them, simple repetitive sequences promoted the development of Chinese medicine identification technology [5]. SSR molecular markers are highly polymorphic, reproducible, and abundant, and have good coverage of the genome [6]. At the same time, SSR molecular markers are suitable for Chinese medicinal materials without detailed background materials [7], which facilitates the construction of Chinese medicine fingerprints. The new technology dual-molecular labeling method can meet the current stage of studying the types and quality differences of traditional Chinese medicine at the molecular level [8], obtain complete genetic information of the species, and make up for the shortcomings of a single identification method [9]. DNA barcode technology also belongs to the category of molecular marking technology, which can quickly identify species information and provide convenience for the identification of Chinese medicine.
2 Guidelines for DNA barcode molecular identification of Chinese medicinal materials

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